Basic Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Course Topics

  • Circuit Concepts
  • Circuit Analysis Techniques
  • Electrostatics and DC Transients Analysis
  • Single-Phase AC Circuits
  • RL series and parallel in AC Circuits
  • RC Series and Parallel in AC Circuits
  • Resonance in RLC Series and Parallel AC Circuits
  • Three-Phase AC Circuits
  • Three-phase voltages and phase sequence for Star and Delta Connections
  • Relation between the Phase and Line voltages and currents for Star and Delta Connections
  • Balanced and unbalanced three-phase loads (Star & Delta)
  • Measurement of Power by wattmeter
  • Magnetic Circuits
  • Biot-Savart law, Ampere's circuital law
  • Reluctance, Permeance, Leakage flux and fringing
  • B-H Characteristics
  • Analysis of Series and Parallel Magnetic Circuit
  • Eddy Current & Hysteresis Losses
  • Faraday's laws of electromagnetic Induction
  • Self inductance, mutual inductance and coefficient of coupling
  • Energy stored in a magnetic field
  • Basic requirements of a measuring instrument- deflection
  • Control and damping devices
  • Moving coil, Moving iron, Dynamometer
  • Thermocouple type of Ammeter, Voltmeter and Wattmeter
  • Energy meter
  • Frequency meter, Megger
  • Potentiometer, Galvanometer, Multimeter
  • Measurement of resistance, inductance and capacitance by Bridge Method (Maxwell-Wien Bridge, Schering Bridge and Kelvin Double Bridge)
  • Application of localization of cable faults
  • Distribution of electrical energy system of wiring and installation, Earthing of installation
  • Testing of electrical installation
  • Types of Semi Conductors
  • Diffusion and Drift
  • Mobility, Varistors
  • Thermistors and Non Linear Resistors
  • Characteristics of diodes
  • Diode as a rectifier, Diode damper
  • Voltage doubler, Zener diodes, tunnel Diodes
  • Rectifiers & Filters, LEDs, seven-segment display
  • The junction transistor and its characteristics
  • Transistor as a switch
  • Transistor as an amplifier
  • Stabilized biased circuits
  • Self biased, Potentiometer biased
  • Series regulators, Shunt regulators

Circuit Concepts

Electric Current, voltage, and resistance are three of the fundamental electrical properties. Stated simply,

• current: is the directed flow of charge through a conductor.
• Voltage: is the force that generates the current.
• Resistance: is an opposition to current that is provided by the material, component, or circuit.

Electric Current, Voltage, and resistance are the three primary properties of an electrical circuit. The relationships among them are defined by the fundamental law of circuit operation, called Ohm’s law.

Electric Current

As you know, an outside force can break an electron free from its parent atom. In copper (and other metals), very little external force is required to generate free electrons. In fact the thermal energy (heat) present at room temperature (220C) can generate free electrons. The number of electrons generated varies directly with temperature. In other words, higher temperatures generate more free electrons.

The motion of the free electrons in copper is random when no directing force is applied. That is, the free electrons in copper are random when no directing force is applied. That is, the free electrons move in every direction, as shown in Figure 1. Since, the free electrons are moving in every direction, this net flow of electrons in any direction is zero.

When an external force causes all of the electrons to move in the same direction. In this case, a negative potential is applied to one end of the copper and a positive potential is applied to the other. As a result, the free electrons all move from negative to positive, and we can say that we have a directed flow of charge (electrons). This directed flow of electrons is called electric current.



Ohm’s law states that the voltage across a conductor is directly proportional to the current flowing through it, provided all physical conditions and temperature remain constant.


     Kirchhoff’s Current Law - The total current entering a circuits junction is exactly equal to the total current leaving the same junction.

       Σ IIN = Σ IOUT.

    Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law - The algebraic sum of all the voltages around any closed loop in a circuit is equal to zero. 

       ΣV = 0.


Voltage Divider circuits are used to produce different voltage levels from a common voltage source but the current is the same for all components in a series cicruit

The simplest, easiest to understand, and most basic form of a passive voltage divider network is that of two resistors connected together in series. This basic combination allows us to use the Voltage Divider Rule to calculate the voltage drops across each series resistor.


Current Divider circuits have two or more parallel branches for currents to flow through but the voltage is the same for all components in the parallel cicruit

Current Divider Circuits are parallel circuits in which the source or supply current divides into a number of parallel paths. In a parallel connected circuit, all the components have their terminals connected together sharing the same two end nodes. This results in different paths and branches for the current to flow or pass along. However, the currents can have different values through each component.

1.7  Analogy between Electrical and Other Non-electric Physical Systems

The analogy, of course, is a mathematical one: that is, two systems are analogous to each other if they are described by similar equations. The analogous electric quantities for a mechanical system

1.8 Effect of temperature on resistance

the resistance of a conductor changes with the size of the conductor (e.g. thicker wires have less resistance to current flow than thinner wires), the resistance of a conductor also changes with changing temperature. This may be expected to happen because, as temperature changes, the dimensions of the conductor will change as it expands or contracts.

However, materials that are classed as CONDUCTORS tend to INCREASE their resistance with an increase in temperature. INSULATORS however are liable to DECREASE their resistance with an increase in temperature. Materials used for practical insulators (glass, plastic etc.) only exhibit a marked drop in their resistance at very high temperatures. They remain good insulators over all temperatures they are likely to encounter in use.

These changes in resistance cannot therefore be explained by a change in dimensions due to thermal expansion or contraction. In fact for a given size of conductor the change in resistance is due mainly to a change in the resistivity of the material, and is caused by the changing activity of the atoms that make up the material.