Passenger ships - usually defined as a ship carrying more than 12 passengers - on international voyages must comply with all relevant IMO regulations, including those in the SOLAS and Load Lines Conventions.
Passenger ships in operation today are subject to a vast array of regulations and standards covering every aspect of ship construction and operation. A number of incidents over the years have led to improvements in safety requirements, including those relating to fire safety measures - such as escape routes and fire protections systems for the large atrium typical of cruise ships - and life-saving appliances and arrangements.
Besides improvements in the technical regulations, the entry into force of the International Safety Management (ISM) Code for passenger ships in 1998 was an important step in focusing on the "human element" side of shipping, by providing an international standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention.
Meanwhile, the entry into force on 1 January 2012 of the 2010 amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 has paved the way for greatly enhanced seafarer standards as well as giving IMO itself powers to check Parties' compliance with the Convention. The STCW Convention, as amended in 2010, includes specific training requirements for crew on passenger ships, such as training in crowd management, for use in emergency evacuation.
Large passenger ships can produce a tremendous amount of waste - regulations on garbage and sewage management are contained in MARPOL 73/78.
Roll-on, roll-off ferries; high-speed craft and new craft such as Wig-in-Ground effect craft all have their own particular safety concerns.
General learning objectives:
After going through this course, you should be able to