Fluid Machines

Course Topics

  • Fluid Properties, Pressure and Its Measurement
  • Different Properties,i.e Capillarity, Surface Tension, Viscosity
  • Viscosity
  • Newtonion and Non Newtonion Fluids
  •  Non-Newtonian Fluids
  • Surface Tension of Liquids
  • Capillarity
  • Vapour Pressure
  • Pressure and its Measurement
  • Pascal's Law
  • Units and scales of Pressure Measurement
  • Piezometer Tube
  • The Barometer
  • Manometers for measuring Gauge and Vacuum Pressure
  • Manometers to measure Pressure Difference
  • Inclined Tube Manometer
  • Inverted Tube Manometer
  • Different Types of Mechanical Gauges
  • Hydrostatics
  • Hydrostatic Thrusts on Submerged Curved Surfaces
  • Buoyancy
  • Stability of Unconstrained Submerged Bodies in Fluid
  • Stable Equilibrium
  • Unstable Equilibrium
  • Neutral Equilibrium
  • Stability of Floating Bodies in Fluid
  • Period of Oscillation
  • Fundamental of Fluid Flow and Equation of Motion
  • Conservation of Energy
  • pressure energy,potential energy,kinetic energy,total energy
  • Euler's Equation of motion
  • Bernoulli's Equation
  • Measurement Of Flow Rate Through Pipe
  • Venturimeter
  • Orificemeter
  • Flow Nozzle
  • Stagnation Pressure
  • Pitot Tube for Flow Measurement
  • Flow Through Orifices And Mouthpieces
  • Impacts of Jets and Jet Propulsion
  • Force on a stationary surface
  • Force on a moving surface
  • Forces on Curve Surfaces due to the Impingement of Liquid Jets
  • Propulsion of a Ship
  • Jet Engine
  • Flow and Losses in Pipes and Fittings
  • Losses Due to Sudden Enlargement
  • Losses Due to Sudden Contraction
  • Entry and Exit Losses
  • Losses In Pipe Bends
  • Losses In Pipe Fittings
  • Concept of Friction Factor in a pipe flow
  • Variation of Friction Factor
  • Pipes in Series
  • Pipes in Parallel
  • Power Transmission By A Pipeline

Fluid Properties, Pressure and Its Measurement

Definition of Fluid

  • A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously in the face of tangential or shear stress, irrespective of the   magnitude of shear stress .This continuous deformation under the application of shear stress constitutes a flow.
  • In this connection fluid can also be defined as the state of matter that cannot sustain any shear stress.

Example : Consider Fig 1.1https://nptel.ac.in/content/storage2/courses/112104118/lecture-1/images/fig1.2.gif


Fig 1.1 Shear stress on a fluid body

If a shear stress τ is applied at any location in a fluid, the element 011' which is initially at rest, will move to 022', then to 033'. Further, it moves to 044' and continues to move in a similar fashion.

In other words, the tangential stress in a fluid body depends on velocity of deformation and vanishes as this velocity approaches zero. A good example is Newton's parallel plate experiment where dependence of shear force on the velocity of deformation  was established.