Management Science and Economics

Course Topics




Unit – II



Human resource planning is the process of analyzing and identifying the availability and the need for human resources so that the organization can meet its objectives. The focus of HR planning is to ensure that the organization has the right number of human resources, with the right capabilities, at the right times, and in the right places. In HR planning, an organization must consider the availability and allocation of people to jobs over long periods of time, not just for the next month or the next year.

HRP is a sub system in the total organizational planning. Actions may include shifting employees to other jobs in the organization, laying off employees or otherwise cutting back the number of employees, developing present employees, and/or increasing the number of employees in certain areas. Factors to consider include the current employees’ knowledge, skills, and abilities and the expected vacancies resulting from retirements, promotions, transfers, and discharges. To do this, HR planning requires efforts by HR professionals working with executives and managers.


1. Forecast personnel requirements: HR planning is essential to determine the future manpower needs in an organization. In the absence of such a plan, it would be difficult to have the services of right kind of people at the right time.

2. Cope with changes: HR planning is required to cope with changes in market conditions, technology, products and government regulations in an effective way. These changes may often require the services of people with the requisite technical knowledge and training. In the absence of an HR plan, we may not be in a position to enlist their services in time.iii.

3. Use existing manpower productively: By keeping an inventory of existing personnel in an enterprise by skill, level, training, educational qualifications, work experience, it will be possible to utilize the existing resources more usefully in relation to the job requirements. This also helps in decreasing wage and salary costs in the long run.

4. Promote employees in a systematic manner: HR planning provides useful information on the basis of which management decides on the promotion of eligible personnel in the organization. In the absence of an HR plan, it may be difficult to ensure regular promotions to competent people on a justifiable basis.

5. A series of specified reasons are there that attaches importance to manpower planning and forecasting exercises. They are elaborated below:

 To link manpower planning with the organizational planning

 To determine recruitment levels.

 To anticipate redundancies.

 To determine optimum training levels.

 To provide a basis for management development programs.

 To cost the manpower.

 To assist productivity bargaining.

 To assess future accommodation requirement.

 To study the cost of overheads and value of service functions.

 To decide whether certain activity needs to be subcontracted, etc.

The objectives of human resource planning may be summarized as below:

Forecasting Human Resources Requirements: HRP is essential to determine the future needs of HR in an organization. In the absence of this plan it is very difficult to provide the right kind of people at the right time.

Effective Management of Change: Proper planning is required to cope with changes in the different aspects which affect the organization. These changes need continuation of allocation/ reallocation and effective utilization of HR in organization.

Realizing the Organizational Goals: In order to meet the expansion and other organizational activities the organizational HR planning is essential.

Promoting Employees: HRP gives the feedback in the form of employee data which can be used in decision-making in promotional opportunities to be made available for the organization.

Effective Utilization of HR: The data base will provide the useful information in identifying surplus and deficiency in human resources. The objective of HRP is to maintain and improve the organizational capacity to reach its goals by developing appropriate strategies that will result in the maximum contribution of HR.



Major reasons for the emphasis on HRP at the Macro level:

1) Employment-Unemployment Situation: Though in general the number of educated

unemployment is on the rise, there is acute shortage for a variety of skills. This emphasizes on the need for more effective recruitment and employee retention.

2) Technological Change: The changes in production technologies, marketing methods and management techniques have been extensive and rapid. Their effect has been profound on the job contents and job contexts. These changes have caused problems relating to redundancies, retention and redeployment. All these suggest the need to plan manpower needs intensively and systematically.

3) Demographic Change: The changing profile of the work force in terms of age, sex, literacy, technical inputs and social background has implications for HRP.

4) Skill Shortage: Unemployment does not mean that the labour market is a buyer’s market. Organizations generally become more complex and require a wide range of specialist skills that are rare and scare. A problem arises in an organization when employees with such specialized skills leave.

5) Governmental Influences: Government control and changes in legislation with regard to affirmative action for disadvantages groups, working conditions and hours of work, restrictions on women and child employment, causal and contract labour, etc. have stimulated the organizations to be become involved in systematic HRP.

6) Legislative Control: The policies of “hire and fire” have gone. Now the legislation makes it difficult to reduce the size of an organization quickly and cheaply. It is easy to increase but difficult to shed the fat in terms of the numbers employed because of recent changes in labour law relating to lay-offs and closures. Those responsible for managing manpower must look far ahead and thus attempt to foresee manpower problems.

7) Impact of the Pressure Group: Pressure groups such as unions, politicians and persons displaced from land by location of giant enterprises have been raising contradictory pressure on enterprise management such as internal recruitment and promotion, preference to employees’ children, displace person, sons of soil etc.

8) Systems Approach: The spread of system thinking and advent of the macro computer as the part of the on-going revolution in information technology which emphasis planning and newer ways of handling voluminous personnel records.

9) Lead Time: The log lead time is necessary in the selection process and training and deployment of the employee to handle new knowledge and skills successfully.


1. Future Personnel Needs: Human resource planning is significant because it helps to determine the future personnel needs of the organization. If an organization is facing the problem of either surplus or deficiency in staff strength, then it is the result of the absence of effecting HR planning. All public sector enterprises find themselves overstaffed now as they never had any planning for personnel requirement and went of recruitment spree till late 1980’s. The problem of excess staff has become such a prominent problem that many private sector units are resorting to VRS ‘voluntary retirement scheme’. The excess of labor problem would have been there if the organization had good HRP system. Effective HRP system will also enable the organization to have good succession planning.

2. Part of Strategic Planning: HRP has become an integral part of strategic planning of strategic planning. HRP provides inputs in strategy formulation process in terms of deciding whether the organization has got the right kind of human resources to carry out the given strategy. HRP is also necessary during the implementation stage in the form of deciding to make resource allocation decisions related to organization structure, process and human resources. In some organizations HRP play as significant role as strategic planning and HR issues are perceived as inherent in business management.

3. Creating Highly Talented Personnel: Even though India has a great pool of educated

unemployed, it is the discretion of HR manager that will enable the company to recruit the right person with right skills to the organization. Even the existing staff hope the job so frequently that organization face frequent shortage of manpower. Manpower planning in the form of skill development is required to help the organization in dealing with this problem of skilled manpower shortage

4. International Strategies: An international expansion strategy of an organization is facilitated to a great extent by HR planning. The HR department’s ability to fill key jobs with foreign nationals and reassignment of employees from within or across national borders is a major challenge that is being faced by international business. With the growing trend towards global operation, the need for HRP will as well will be the need to integrate HRP more closely with the organizations strategic plans. Without effective HRP and subsequent attention to employee recruitment, selection, placement, development, and career planning, the growing competition for foreign executives may lead to expensive and strategically descriptive turnover among key decision makers.

5. Foundation for Personnel Functions: HRP provides essential information for designing and implementing personnel functions, such as recruitment, selection, training and development, personnel movement like transfers, promotions and layoffs.

6. Increasing Investments in Human Resources: Organizations are making increasing investments in human resource development compelling the increased need for HRP. Organizations are realizing that human assets can increase in value more than the physical assets. An employee who gradually develops his/ her skills and abilities become a valuable asset for the organization. Organizations can make investments in its personnel either through direct training or job assignment and the rupee value of such a trained, flexible, motivated productive workforce is difficult to determine. Top officials have started acknowledging that quality of work force is responsible for both short term and long term performance of the organization.

7. Resistance to Change: Employees are always reluctant whenever they hear about change and even about job rotation. Organizations cannot shift one employee from one department to another without any specific planning. Even for carrying out job rotation (shifting one employee from one department to another) there is a need to plan well ahead and match the skills required and existing skills of the employees.

8. Uniting the Viewpoint of Line and Staff Managers: HRP helps to unite the viewpoints of line and staff managers. Though HRP is initiated and executed by the corporate staff, it requires the input and cooperation of all managers within an organization. Each department manager knows about the issues faced by his department more than anyone else. So communication between HR staff and line managers is essential for the success of HR Planning and development.

9. Succession Planning: Human Resource Planning prepares people for future challenges. The ‘stars’ are picked up, trained, assessed and assisted continuously so that when the time comes such trained employees can quickly take the responsibilities and position of their boss or seniors as and when situation arrives.

10. Other Benefits: (a) HRP helps in judging the effectiveness of manpower policies and programmes of management. (b) It develops awareness on effective utilization of human resources for the overall development of organization. (c) It facilitates selection and training of employees with adequate knowledge, experience and aptitudes so as to carry on and achieve the organizational objectives (d) HRP encourages the company to review and modify its human resource policies and practices and to examine the way of utilizing the human resources for better utilization.


The first phase involves the gathering and analysis of data through manpower inventories and forecasts,

The second phase consists of establishing manpower objectives and policies and gaining top management approval of these.

The third phase involves designing and implementing plans and promotions to enable the organization to achieve its manpower objectives.

The fourth phase is concerned with control and evaluation of manpower plans to facilitate progress in order to benefit both the organization and the individual. The long run view means that gains may be sacrificed in the short run for the future grounds. The planning process enables the organization to identify what its manpower needs is and what potential manpower problems required current action. This leads to more effective and efficient performance.

HRP effectively involves forecasting personnel needs, assessing personnel supply and matching demand – supply factors through personnel related programmes. The HR planning process is influenced by overall organizational objectives and environment of business.

Environmental Scanning:

It refers to the systematic monitoring of the external forces influencing the organization. The following forces are essential for pertinent HRP.

 Economic factors, including general and regional conditions.

 Technological changes

 Demographic changes including age, composition and literacy,

 Political and legislative issues, including laws and administrative rulings

 Social concerns, including child care, educational facilities and priorities.

By scanning the environment for changes that will affect an organization, managers can anticipate their impact and make adjustments early.


1. Analyzing organizational plans: Human Resource Planning should start with analyzing organizational plans which include expansion, diversification, mergers, acquisitions, reduction in operations, technology to be used, method of production etc. Therefore Human Resource Planning should begin with analyzing the organization before setting out on fulfilling its tasks.

2. Manpower forecasting: Forecasting the overall human resource requirement in accordance with the organizational plans is one of the key aspects of demand forecasting. Forecasting of quality of human resources like skills, knowledge, values and capabilities need.

3. Forecasting supply of HR-Every organization has two sources of supply of Human Resources: Internal & External. Internally, human resources can be obtained for certain posts through promotions and transfers. In order to judge the internal supply of human resources in future human resource inventory or human resource audit is necessary. Human resource inventory helps in determining and evaluating the quantity of internal human resources available. Once the future internal supply is estimated, supply of external human resources is analyzed.

4. Estimating manpower gaps: Manpower gaps can be identified by comparing demand and supply forecasts. Such comparison will reveal either deficit or surplus of Human Resources in the future. Deficit suggests the number of persons to be recruited from outside, whereas surplus implies redundant employees to be re-deployed or terminated. Employees estimated to be deficient can be trained while employees with higher, better skills may be given more enriched jobs.

5. Action planning: Once the manpower gaps are identified, plans are prepared to bridge these gaps. Plans to meet the surplus manpower may be redeployment in other departments and retrenchment. People may be persuaded to quit voluntarily through a golden handshake. Deficit can be met through recruitment, selection, transfer and promotion. In view of shortage of certain skilled employees, the organization has to take care not only of recruitment but also retention of existing employees. Hence, the organization has to plan for retaining of existing employees.

6. Monitoring and control: After the action plans are implemented, human resource structure and the processes should be controlled and monitor with a view to keep them in accordance with action plans.


According to Dale Yoder, “Recruitment is a process to discover the source of manpower to meet the requirements of staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.”

According to Bergmann and Taylor, “Recruitment is the process of locating, Identifying, and attracting capable applicants.”

Recruitment is the process of locating and encouraging potential applicants to apply for existing or anticipated job openings. It is actually a linking function, joining together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs. Recruitment, logically, aims at (i) attracting a large number of qualified applicants who are ready to take up the job if it's offered and (ii) offering enough information for unqualified persons to self-select themselves out. 


External factors

1. Nature of competition for Human resources - There is a tuff competition among the organization because of MNC’s. Availability of unskilled employees are more when compare with skilled employees. Companies are compromised with the availability skills.

2. Legal factors – Legal provision such as Employment Exchange Act,1959, Child Labour (Regulation and Prohibition) Act, 1986, The Factories Act, 1948, The Apprentices Act,1961and The Mines Act, 1952.

3. Socio-cultural factors – It affect the extent to which the organization can recruit certain categories of people for certain jobs. For example, our Socio-cultural factors prevent women employment in certain manufacturing operations.

4. External influences – Influences of politicians and Recommendations of VIPs    

Internal factors  

1. Organizational Image – Image, Brand of the organization will affect the recruitment process.

2. Size of the organization – Small or Large size of the Organization is important factor because of the financial capability.

3. Type of personnel to be recruited – Type of recruitment process and Cost of Expenses are depend up on the personnel to be recruited. For example recruitment of Managerial personnel involves requirement of critical recruitment process than recruitment of normal unskilled employee.

4. Past experiences – Previous experiences like positive and negative experiences  


The recruitment process consists of the following:

A) RECRUITMENT PLANNING-Planning involves to draft a comprehensive job specification for the vacant positions outlining their major and minor responsibilities; the skills, experience and qualifications needed ; grade and level of pay ; starting data ; whether temporary or permanent; and mention of special conditions, if any, to the jobs to be filled.

1. Number of contacts: Recruitment Planning starts with determination of number of Applicants to be received and the number of Applicants is determined by Yield Ratio.

2. Type of applicants to be contacted: This refers to type of personnel to be informed about the job opening based on job description and job specification. This determines how the prospective personnel may be communicated about the job opening.

B) STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT-The next step involved is to devise a suitable strategy for recruiting the candidates in the organization. The strategic consideration would include the type of recruitment Method, the geographical area to be considered for the search, source of recruitment and Sequence of activities for recruitment.


1. Internal sources – 1. Present personnel Like current employees of the organization. Recruiting by way of Giving promotion and Transfer etc. 2. Referrals through Existing employees.

2. External sources – Direct recruitment from outside the organization like Employment exchange and consultants et.

METHODS OF CONTACTING SOURCES: Recruiter has the choice of whom to recruit based on the information of candidates. In the same way recruit also must have information about the organization to take the decision regarding of joining or not joining. So before recruiting the employees the organization must decide the type of in formations is to be shared with the candidates. In this context, there are three Alternative theories which explains how a candidates arrives at a decision to choose an organization to join. These are Objective factor Theory, Subjective factor Theory and Critical factor Theory.   

Realistic Job preview - It provides information to the candidates about the company to take decision whether to join or not join.


Sourcing is the use of one or more strategies to attract or identify candidates to fill job vacancies. It may involve internal and/or external advertising, using appropriate media, such as local or national newspapers, specialist recruitment media, professional publications, window advertisements, job centers, or in a variety of ways via the internet. Alternatively, employers may use recruitment consultancies or agencies to find otherwise scarce candidates who may be content in their current positions and are not actively looking to move companies. This initial research for so-called passive candidates, also called name generation, results in a contact information of potential candidates who can then be contacted discreetly to be screened and approached.

c) Searching-Searching involves deciding internal or external sources. Sometimes both internal

And external may be decided.

d) Screening-Screening is the next step. Job specification is invaluable in this regard. Screening

Is done on the basis of qualification, knowledge, skills, abilities, interest and experience Mentioned in job specification.

e) Evaluation and control-Evaluation and control in recruitment are needed as considerable cost is involved in the process. This includes

a. Salary of the recruiters

b. Cost of time spent for preparing job analysis, advertisement etc.,

c. Administrative expenses

d. Cost of outsourcing or overtime while vacancies remain unfilled and

e. Cost incurred in recruiting unsuitable candidates.

                                                    Sources of recruitment:



1. Transfers-The employees are transferred from one department to another according to their efficiency and experience. 
2. Promotions-The employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits and greater responsibility based on efficiency and experience.

3. Others are Upgrading and Demotion of present employees according to their performance. 
4. Retired and Retrenched employees- may also be recruited once again in case of shortage of qualified personnel or increase in load of work. Recruitment such people save time and costs of the organizations as the people are already aware of the organizational culture and the policies and procedures.
5. The dependents and relatives of Deceased employees and Disabled employees are also done by many companies so that the members of the family do not become dependent on the mercy of others. 


1. Press advertisements-Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers and journals are a widely used source of recruitment. The main advantage of this method is that it has a wide reach.

2. Educational institutes- Various management institutes, engineering colleges, Medical Colleges etc. are a good source of recruiting well qualified executives, engineers, medical staff etc. They provide facilities for campus interviews and placements.

3. Placement agencies-Several private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of client companies by charging a fee. These agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment of executives and specialists. It is also known as RPO (Recruitment Process Outsourcing)

4. Employment exchanges-Government establishes public employment exchanges throughout the country. These exchanges provide job information to job seekers and help employers in identifying suitable candidates.

5. Labour contractors-Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain close contacts with the sources of such workers. This source is used to recruit labour for construction jobs.

6. Unsolicited applicants-Many job seekers visit the office of well-known companies on their own. Such callers are considered nuisance to the daily work routine of the enterprise. But can help in creating the talent pool or the database of the probable candidates for the organization.

7. Employee referrals/Recommendations-Many organizations have structured system where the current employees of the organization can refer their friends and relatives for some position in their organisation. Also, the office bearers of trade unions are often aware of the suitability of candidates. Management can inquire these leaders for suitable jobs. In some organizations these are formal agreements to give priority in recruitment to the candidates recommended by the trade union.

8. Recruitment at factory gate-Unskilled workers may be recruited at the factory gate these may be employed whenever a permanent worker is absent. More efficient among these may be recruited to fill permanent vacancies.


Meaning: Selection starts where recruitment ends. Selection is hiring the best candidates from the pool of applications. It refers to the process of offering jobs to one or more applicants from the applications received through recruitment. Selection is the process of picking the suitable candidates from the pool of job applications to fill various jobs in the organization.

According to Yodder, selection is the process by which candidates for employment are divided into class - those who will be offered employment and those who will not.”


1. Preliminary interview-After screening the applications, preliminary interview will be conducted. The purpose of preliminary interview is to eliminate unsuitable or unqualified candidates’ from the selection process. In screening unqualified candidates are eliminated on the basis of information given in the application form, whereas preliminary interview rejects misfits for reasons, which did not appear in the application forms.

2. Application Blanks-This is a method for getting information from a prospective candidate. This serves as a personal record of the candidate bearing personal history profile, detailed personal activities, skills and accomplishments. Almost all organizations require job seekers to fill up the application. Usual contents are as follows:

i. Biographical information – Age, father’s name, sex, nationality, height, marital status.

ii. Educational information - Name of the institutions where the candidate studied– marks – Divisions – Distinctions.

iii. Work Experience – previous experience – nature of job – salary – duration –reason for quitting.

iv. Salary – last salary drawn – minimum salary acceptable.

v. Extra-curricular information – NSS – NCC – hobbies etc.

vi. References – Name and address.

3. Selection Tests-According to Lee J. Groobach, “A test is a systematic procedure for comparing the behaviour of two or more persons.”

TESTS - A test is a systematic procedure for comparing the behaviour of two or more persons.


Broadly there are two types of tests viz., 1) Ability tests and 2) Personality tests.

I. Ability tests

1. Aptitude tests

2. Achievement tests

3. Intelligence tests

4. Judgment tests

II. Personality Tests

1. Interest tests

2. Personality inventory tests

3. Projective tests

4. Selection Interview-The next step in the selection process is ‘employment interview.’ Interview is the widely used selection method. It is a face-to-face interaction between interviewer and the interviewee. If handled properly, it can be a powerful technique in having accurate information of the interview otherwise not available.

1. Preliminary interview,

2. Patterned interview,

3. Depth interview,

4. Stress interview

5. Medical examination-The last tool used in the selection process is physical examination. The main purpose of conducting physical or medical examination is to have proper matching of job requirement with the physical ability of the candidate. Among various objectives of physical test, the major ones are, to detect if the individual is carrying any infectious diseases, to identify health defects of an individual undertaking certain works determined to his or her health and to protect companies from employees filing compensation claim for injuries and accidents caused by pre-existing ailments.

6. Reference checks-In the selection process, the next step is verifying information or obtaining additional information through reference. The applicant is asked to give the names of one or two referees who know him personally. Previous employers, University Professors, neighbours and friends are usually referees. However, references are treated as a mere formality and are hardly used to influence the selection decisions.

7. Final approval and employment-Final selection follows the above procedures outlined. Selected candidates would be sent with appointment orders. Additional names than required vacancies may be kept in the waiting list.

Placement-Placement involves assigning a specific job to each one of the selected candidates.

Induction-Induction is introducing the new employee to work surrounding and people already working there.


An interview is a face to face meeting and discussion between an applicant and the employer’s representative. Depending on the type of post, interview can be conducted by a single manager usually HR Manager or HR Manager and the Manager of the department for which the interview is being conducted.

Aim of interviews

1. To conform the information already provided by the applicant

2. To enable interviewers to compare in detail each applicant’s personal characteristics with those provided in the application form.

3. To enable interviewers to assess the applicant’s behaviour, mannerism and alertness etc..

4. To enable the applicant to seek relevant information about the job and organization as a whole.    

5. To enable interviewers to short-list the most suitable candidates from among those who attended the interview.   


Behavioral interview                  

Does past performance predict future success? Proponents of behavioral interviewing agree that it does. Be prepared to respond with details, actions and results when participating in a behavioral interview.

Behavioral job interview
Behavioral based job interviews are based on learning how the interviewee acted in specific employment-related situations. The logic is that past behavior will predict future performance. Here's information on behavioral job interviews, including behavioral job interview questions, how to prepare for a behavioral interview, and techniques and...

Case interview
A case interview is a job interview where the interviewee is given a business scenario and asked to manage the situation. Here's information on case interviews, how to prepare and how to answer this type of interview question.

Exit interview
An exit interview is a meeting between an employee who has resigned or been terminated and the company's Human Resources department.

Experience interview
An experience interview is designed to determine whether you have the right experience for the job for which you are interviewing. Here's information on experience interviews, how to prepare, plus sample interview questions.

Final interview
The final interview is the last interview you will have before finding out whether or not you will get a job offer. Here's how to prepare for a final interview.

First interview
A first interview is typically the first step in the hiring process. A first interview is conducted to screen applicants to determine if they are qualified for the job for which the company is hiring.

Group interview
A group interview takes place when a candidate is interviewed by more than one interviewer at the same time. Alternately, it can mean that a group of candidates are interviewed at the same time by a hiring manger.

Informal interviews
How to handle an informal interview with a recruiter, including how to prepare, what to wear, what to bring, questions to ask and how to follow up after a casual meeting with a prospective employer.

Informational interviews
Informational Interview: How to conduct an informational interview, who to ask, and how it can help your job search.

Job promotion interviews
When an employee is being considered for a promotion or applies for a new job within the company, they may be required to interview for the position.

Lunch and dinner interviews
Interviews are often stressful - even for job seekers who have interviewed many times. Interviewing can be even more stressful when you are expected to eat and talk at the same time. Here's how to survive a lunch or dinner interview.

Mock interview
A mock interview is a simulation of an actual job interview. Here's information on mock interviews and how they can help you prepare for a real interview.

On the spot interview
An on the spot job interview takes place either when you apply in-person for a job and you're asked to interview when you turn in the application or when an organization (typically retail or hospitality) announces they will be holding open interviews on a specific date.

Online job interview
Here's information on how online job interviews work, how to practice for an online interview, and how to prepare for your interview.

Open Ended interview
Open ended interview questions are typically used when the same questions are asked of all interviewees. In-depth responses are expected, along with a description or explanation. Here are open ended interview questions you may be asked, plus sample answers.

Open job interview
An open job interview is an interview for employment where companies accept job applications and conduct interviews during a ranges of times when all applicants who are interested in applying can attend.

Out-of-Town job interview
Traveling for an interview? Don't let the stress of travel jeopardize your interview success. Here are interview tips for acing an out of town job interviews.

Panel job Interview
A panel job interview takes place when an applicant for employment is interviewed by a panel of interviewers.

Phone Interview
While you're actively job searching, it's important to be prepared for a phone interview on a moment's notice. You never know when a recruiter or a networking contact might call and ask if you have a few minutes to talk.

Pre- Interview questionnaire
A pre-interview questionnaire is used by an employer to get further information about a job applicant prior to a job interview.

Screening Interview
A screening interview is a type of job interview that is conducted to determine if the applicant has the qualifications needed to do the job for which the company is hiring.

Second Interview
A second round interview is an interview held after a screening interview. Second round interviews typically involve more detailed interview questions about the applicant, their qualifications, and their ability to perform for the company.

Semi-Structured Interview
A semi-structured interview is a flexible interview in which the interviewer does not follow a formalized list of questions.

Situational Interview
A situational interview is a job interview where a candidate is asked specific questions about what may happen on a job. The candidate is asked to assess a situation and to provide solutions on how he or she would handle it.

Stay Interviews
A stay interview is designed to discover why a current employee continues to work for the company, what motivates them, and why they stay with the organization.

Stress Interviews
A stress interview is designed to determine how a job applicant reacts under pressure.

Structured Interviews
A structured interview format is a standardized method of comparing job candidates. A structured interview format is typically used when an employer wants to assess and compare candidates impartially.

Third Interviews
Third interview tips and advice including questions employers ask during a second interview, how to make the best impression during the interview, and how to follow up after a third interview.

Unstructured Interview
An unstructured interview is a job interview in which questions may be changed based on the interviewee’s responses.


Career development is an organized approach used to match employee goals with the business needs of the agency in support of workforce development initiatives. The purpose of career development is to:

 Enhance each employee’s current job performance.

 Enable individuals to take advantage of future job opportunities.

 Fulfill agencies’ goals for a dynamic and effective workforce.  

Career development involves managing your career either within or between organizations. It also includes learning new skills, and making improvements to help you in your career. Career development is an ongoing, lifelong process to help you learn and achieve more in your career. Whether you are looking at making a career change, or moving up within a company, planning your own career development will help you succeed. By creating a personal career development plan, you can set goals and objectives for your own personal career growth. Don’t make the mistake of leaving your career development future in the hands of your employer, hoping that you will get the next promotion or pay raise. This misconception can lead to job dissatisfaction and resentment. Career planning is a lifelong process, which includes choosing an occupation, getting a job, growing in our job, possibly changing careers, and eventually retiring. The Career Planning Site offers coverage of all these areas. This article will focus on career choice and the process one goes through in selecting an occupation. This may happen once in our lifetimes, but it is more likely to happen several times as we first define and then redefine ourselves and our goals. Managers are responsible for linking the organization’s needs to employee career goals, and can assist employees in the career planning process. Human Resources is responsible for designing career paths and employee development programs that help employees reach their goals. Each employee is responsible for planning and managing his/her career.


Career Management is the combination of structured planning and the active management choice of one’s own professional career. The outcome of successful career management should include personal fulfillment, work/life balance, goal achievement and financial assurance.

The word career refers to all types of employment ranging from semi-skilled through skilled, and semi professional to professional. The term career has often been restricted to suggest an employment commitment to a single trade skill, profession or business firm for the entire working life of a person. In recent years, however, career now refers to changes or modifications in employment during the foreseeable future. There are many definitions by management scholars of the stages in the managerial process.

The following classification system with minor variations is widely used:

1. Development of overall goals and objectives,

2. Development of a strategy (a general means to accomplish the selected goals/objectives),

3. Development of the specific means (policies, rules, procedures and activities) to implement the strategy, and

4. Systematic evaluation of the progress toward the achievement of the selected goals/objectives to modify the strategy, if necessary.

The time horizon for the achievement of the selected goals or objectives - short term, medium term or long term - will have a major influence on their formulation.

1. Short term goals (one or two years) are usually specific and limited in scope. Short term goals are easier to formulate. Make sure they are achievable and relate to your longer term career goals.

2. Intermediate goals (3 to 20 years) tend to be less specific and more open ended than short term goals. Both intermediate and long term goals are more difficult to formulate than short term goals because there are so many unknowns about the future.

3. Long term goals (more than 100 years), of course, are the most fluid of all. Lack of life experience and knowledge about potential opportunities and pitfalls make the formulation of long term goals/ objectives very difficult. Long range goals/objectives, however, may be easily modified as additional information is received without a great loss of career efforts because of experience/knowledge transfer from one career to another.

4. Making career choices and decisions – the traditional focus of careers interventions. The changed nature of work means that individuals may now have to revisit this process more frequently now and in the future, more than in the past.

5. Managing the organizational career – concerns the career management tasks of individuals within the workplace, such as decision-making, life-stage transitions, dealing with stress etc.

6. Managing ‘boundary less’ careers – refers to skills needed by workers whose employment is beyond the boundaries of a single organization, a work style common among, for example, artists and designers.

7. Taking control of one’s personal development – as employers take less responsibility, employees need to take control of their own development in order to maintain and enhance their employability.

Career development, as both a field of study and a practical form of training for workers, is primarily concerned with producing better employees and maximizing employee potential. Career development programs can help the unemployed find jobs or provide workers with the skills and tools they need to advance within a government agency, corporation or organization.


Career development and the career planning process include a number of specific steps that help to identify personal skills and attributes. Finding out how those skills can be utilized in the job market is accomplished by researching a number of career fields that are of interest to you and then by gaining experience in those fields and/or speaking to people currently working in the field. Participating in some form of experiential education will help you to identify if the field is the right choice for you.

Step 1: Self-Assessment

Evaluating who you are as a person. This involves taking a personal inventory of who you are and identifying your individual values, interests, skills, and personal qualities. What makes you tick as a person? You will look at those personal attributes under a microscope and come up with key qualities you can identify and use in your search for the perfect career. Career assessments may be required to promote a better understanding of personal attributes and skills. Contact your Career Services Office at your college to discuss if a career assessment may be right for you. Self-Assessment Reality Check Goal Setting Action Planning

Step 2: Research (Career Exploration)

Obtain an insider’s perspective about the career field you are considering. Conduct Informational Interviews in person, phone, or by email. Professionals enjoy sharing their expertise with people interested in the field. This strategy provides firsthand knowledge from someone currently working in the field and gives an opportunity to ask about their experiences as well as potential jobs and what one might expect if just entering the field. Gain experience through internships or by job shadowing for one to several days to see what a typical work day entails and to gain perspective of what the environment is like and the typical job responsibilities of someone working in the field. Research what types of jobs are available in your area of interest by checking out Majors to Career Converter, The Occupational Outlook Handbook and The Career Guide to Industries. The Occupational Outlook Handbook offers a wealth of information for those currently just entering the job market and for those anticipating making a career change.

Step 3: Decision-Making

Once you’ve made a thorough self-assessment and have done some research of career options, it’s time to make a decision. This can be difficult since there may still be many unknowns and a fear of making the wrong choice. One thing for sure is that although we can do all the necessary steps to making an informed decision, there is no absolute certainty that we are unquestioningly making the right decision. This uncertainty is easier for some people than others but a key point to remember is that you can always learn from any job you have and take those skills and apply them at your next job.

Step4: Search (Taking Action)

It’s now time to look for prospective jobs and/or employers, send out cover letters and resumes, and begin networking with people in the field. Keep in mind that cover letters and resumes are designed to make a favorable impression on employers (if done properly) and the interview process is what will ultimately land you the job. In other words, make sure your cover letter and resume highlight your skills and strengths based on the employer’s needs and that you are fully prepared to knock their socks off at the interview. Take time to research the employer’s website prior to the interview, and be prepared to ask thoughtful questions based on your research.

Step 5: Acceptance

You’ve completed all of the steps above and you’ve been accepted into a new and exciting or different job. Congratulations! According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 64.1% of people change jobs between 5 and 14 times in their lifetime. Consequently, learning the skills above will increase your chances of gaining meaningful and satisfactory work as well as help you to avoid many of the stresses that occur with changing jobs. By recognizing that change is good (even advantageous), changing jobs can be viewed as a positive experience and need not be as anxiety provoking as it may initially seem. You will continue the process of self-assessment, research, decision-making, and job searching in order to make effective and fulfilling career changes throughout your lifetime.


Succession planning is one of the most important career development tools used by organizations. This is done to determine the backups for each senior position by identifying and training the executives who are at the next-lower levels. This is an important process as most organizations rely on it to find their next CEO and other top notch executives. This includes an overall development of lower level employees to make sure that they can effectively handle the responsibilities that they will be handed over in next few years. Formal succession planning is an examination of organization’s long range plans and strategies and HR forecasts. It also offers several other benefits and has a positive impact on organizational culture and efficiency.

Benefits of Formal Succession Planning


Formal succession planning is a systematic approach for preparing employees at lower levels to handle the responsibilities of next higher levels in the coming years. The process involves a lot of serious planning and careful HR forecasts in identifying the capable employees who have the potential to be promoted to next level in the hierarchy.

  • It provides a logical approach for succession of top notch positions by the next lower-level employee. It is all about identifying the skills and competencies and potential of an employee so that he or she can be deployed at different jobs in the time of crisis.
  • Succession planning gives the answers to all the questions regarding preparing an individual for the next level in the organizational hierarchy. It helps HR specialists in knowing and understanding why a specific individual should be developed and trained to promote to the next level.
  • It reduces the randomness in organization’s processes and managerial development movements and establishes formal steps and actions, policies and procedures to support the process of selecting the CEO and other top management executives.
  • A formal succession planning process is a proactive approach to fill a top position. It helps HR professionals to anticipate problems in the process before they get started. This is very important to avoid negative and dysfunctional situations.
  • It fosters cross-functional development and facilitates the integration of HR planning components, processes and procedures. Not only this, it supports connecting formats, guidelines, analyses, judgments and discussions at their front.
  • Formal succession planning helps in further exploitation of computer systems, HRP software applications, HR tools and techniques in order to support the identification, development and training of the individuals.
  • It helps HR managers in overcoming the limitations of reactive management approaches and fosters pro-active management approaches to make organization a better place to work.
  • It establishes a logical basis for making choices among qualified candidates. Who should be selected, why they should be selected and what skills and competencies they own and what needs to be developed in them are critical factors while identifying the employees for succession planning.
  • The process establishes a specific connection between the business objectives and HR strategic planning. Along with this, it also increases internal promotion opportunities.


After an employee has been recruited he is provided with basic background information about the employer, working conditions and the information necessary to perform his job satisfactorily. The new employee’s initial orientation helps him perform better by providing him information of the company rules, and practices.

According to Pigors and Myers, “Placement consists in matching what the supervisor has reason to think the new employee can do with what the job demands (job requirements), imposes (in strain, working conditions, etc.), and offers (in the form of pay rate, interest, companionship with other, promotional possibilities, etc.)” They further state that it is not easy to match all these factors for a new worker who is still in many ways an unknown quantity. For this reason, the first placement usually carries with it the status of probationer.

Following are the basic principles which are to be followed at the time of placement of an employee on the job

 The job should be offered to the man according to his qualifications. The placement should neither be higher nor lower than the qualifications.

 While introducing the job to the new employee, an effort should be made to develop a sense of loyalty and cooperation in him so that he may realise his responsibilities better towards the job and the organisation.

 The employee should be made conversant with the working conditions prevailing in the industry and all things relating to the job. He should also be made aware of the penalties if he commits a wrong.

 Man should be placed on the job according to the requirements of the job. The job should not be adjusted according to the qualifications or requirements of the man. Job first; man next, should be the principle of placement.

 The placement should be ready before the joining date of the newly selected person.

 The placement in the initial period may be temporary as changes are likely after the completion of training. The employee may be later transferred to the job where he can do better justice.

In the words of John M. Ivancevich, “Orientation orients, directs, and guides employees to understand the work, firm, colleagues, and mission. It introduces new employees to the organisation, and to his new tasks, managers, and work groups.”


Billimoria has defined orientation as, “Induction (orientation) is a technique by which a new employee is rehabilitated into the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies, and purposes of the organisation.” Orientation is one component of the new employee socialization process.

Socialization is the ongoing process of instilling in all new employees prevailing attitudes, standards, values, patterns of behaviour that are expected by the organisation and its departments. Thus, orientation is a process through which a new employee is introduced to the organisation. It is the process wherein an employee is made to feel comfortable and at home in the organisation. The new employee is handed over a rulebook, company booklets, policy manuals, progress reports and documents containing company information which are informational in nature. It is responsibility of the human resource department to execute the orientation programme.

The process of induction is meant to induct a new employee into the new social setting of his work.


Normally induction programme is divided into phases

1. In the first phase induction is done by HR Department

2. In the second phase induction is done by the concerned department’s supervisor or head


1. Introduction to the business/department and its personnel/management structure

2. Layout of buildings (factory or offices)

3. Terms and conditions of employment

4. Relevant personnel policies such as training, promotion, health and safety

5. Arrangement for employee involvement and communication

6. Business rules and procedure

7.  Welfare and employee benefits and facilities




  “Process of teaching new knowledge and skills to perform their job effectively.” 
“the term training refers to giving skills and knowledge to new or present employee to perform their task or job.”  

According to Dale S Beach, – “training is the organized procedure by which people learn new knowledge and skills for definite purpose.” 


Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. Training might thus mean showing a machinist how operate his new machine, a new salesperson how to sell her firm’s product, or a new supervisor how to interview and appraise employees.

                Training’s focus has broadened in the past few years. Training used to focus mostly on teaching technical skills, such as training assemblers to solder wires or teachers to device lesson plans. Employees today need skills (and thus training) in team building, decision making, and communication, as well as technological and computer skills.

Needs of Training

New candidates who join an organization are given training. This training familiarize them with the organizational mission, vision, rules and regulations and the working conditions.

The existing employees are trained to refresh and enhance their knowledge.

If any updating and amendments take place in technology, training is given to cope up with those changes. For instance, purchasing a new equipment, changes in technique of production, computer impartment. The employees are trained about use of new equipments and work methods.

When promotion and career growth becomes important. Training is given so that employees are prepared to share the responsibilities of the higher level job.

Training improves efficiency and productivity of employees. Well trained employees show both quantity and quality performance. There is less wastage of time, money and resources if employees are properly trained.

Employees acquire skills and efficiency during training. They become more eligible for promotion. They become an asset for the organization.

 Training helps the employee to get job security and job satisfaction. The more satisfied the employee is and the greater is his morale, the more he will contribute to organizational success and the lesser will be employee absenteeism and turnover

Errors are likely to occur if the employees lack knowledge and skills required for doing a particular job. The more trained an employee is, the less are the chances of committing accidents in job and the more proficient the employee becomes.

Objectives of training

                           The HR formulates the following training objectives in keeping with the Company’s goals and objectives:

1. To prepare the employee both new and old to meet the present as well as the changing requirements of the job and the organization.

2. To prevent obsolescence

3. To impart the new entrance the basic knowledge and skill they need for an in