The Engineering knowledge to be shown by candidates in that which is required for the use, operation and maintenance of the machinery, equipment and ship structure usually in the charge of an Engineer Officer at Management level. Candidates may be required to illustrate their answers by means of freehand sketches. The scope would include following:
1.Technology of materials - Metallurgy of Steel and Cast Iron, Properties and application of material used in machinery on board ships, Destructive and non-destructive testing of material, Engineering processes used in construction and repair, Materials and welding.
2.Physical & chemical properties of fuel & lubricants - Production of Oils from Crude Oil, Properties and characteristics of fuels and lubricants, Shore side and shipboard sampling and testing, Interpretation of test results, Contaminants including microbiological infection, Treatments of fuels and lubricants including storage, centrifuging, blending, pre-treatment and handling.
3.Construction details, and where applicable the manner of attachment to ship, principles involved and operation Surveillance & Performance assessment of : I. water gauge, thermometer, salinometer, ammeter, water meter, pressure gauge and other meters and gauges commonly used by engineers on board ship. II. All auxiliary machineries of engine room including associated systems, pumps, pumping and piping systems, oily water separators. III. Thrust blocks, shafting, bearings, stern tubes, and propellers, shipside fittings. IV. steering gear, stabilisers. V. Refrigeration machinery, deck machinery. VI. Auxiliary boilers and steam plant. VII. Auxiliary compression ignition engines and associated plant. VIII. turbo-electric, diesel electric, gas turbine drives.
4. Start Up and Shut down of Auxiliary Machinery, including associated system: Air compressors and compressed air systems, Hydraulic power system, Types of auxiliary boilers, Auxiliary steam system, Safety valves, Boiler water levels, Use of 'Sea water in Boilers', Use of 'Fresh Water in Boilers', Boiler Water Testing, Boiler Water Treatment, Auxiliary Steam turbines, Boiler defects, Boiler and Steam turbine survey and repairs, Evaporators, Thermal fluid heating system a) Safe and efficient operation, Surveillance & Performance assessment of electrical machines and systems. b) Requirements, including operations and maintenance of pumps and pumping systems including bilge, fire main, ballast, sewage & sludge systems. c) Refrigeration, working principles of air conditioning, cargo and domestic refrigeration plants. Refrigerants used in the marine refrigeration plants, green house effects and future refrigerants. Air conditioning including psychometric process for heating, cooling and humidification. d) Steering gear systems, single failure criteria of steering gear Surveillance & Performance assessment. e) Operation and testing of pneumatic hydraulic and electric control systems. f) Functions and Mechanism of Automatic Control for auxiliary machinery: Generator distribution system, Steam boiler, Oil purifier, Refrigeration system, Pumping and piping system, Steering gear system, Cargo-handling equipment and deck machinery. g) Operation of cargo handling equipment and deck machinery. h) Operation of fresh water systems, fresh water generating systems and its performance assessment. i) Shipboard Personnel & Resource Management & emergency preparedness
1. Design of Marine machinery: Design features and operating mechanisms of marine diesel engines, marine gas turbines and marine steam boilers. Technical communications for design.
2. Operations of marine machinery: .5 Propulsive characteristics of diesel engines and gas turbines, including speed, output and fuel consumption. Operating limits of the propulsion plants. .6 Safe and efficient operation and surveillance of, main propulsion plant and its systems and services. The determination of shaft power and recognition of irregularity in the performance of the machinery and plant. Operation, monitoring and evaluation of engine performance and capacity. .7 Analysis and interpretation of information gained from monitoring equipment. Operation of gearing, clutches, air compressors. .8 Planning and scheduling of engine operations. .9 Functions and mechanism of automatic control of main engine. .10 Safety of engine equipment, systems and services.
3. Start up and Shut down main and auxiliary machinery, including associated system – Engine components, engine lubrication, fuel injection, scavenging and supercharging, starting and reversing, cooling systems, diesel engine control and safety, diesel engine emergency operation, multi-engine propulsion arrangement.
3.1 Engine components (a) Interpret static and dynamic loads and stresses, identifying service limitations of diesel engine components. (b) Evaluate different fabrication methods of diesel engine components, including: Welding, forging, utilizing composite materials, plasma-spraying, laser hardening and use of ceramics and other special materials. (c) Identify two and four stroke operating cycle forces, couples, and moments, relating these to design principles of: Crankshafts, bedplates, foundations, cross heads. (d) Explain out of balance gas and inertia forces, couples, and moments, and relate these to flywheels, balance weights, and first/second order balancing, and hull vibration. (e) Explain factors contributing to torsional vibration, and identify methods of minimizing or eliminating harmful effects of critical speeds. (f) Evaluate the calibration of: Pistons, cylinder liners, piston rings, bearings, crankshafts, to identify wear patterns, limits, and means of correction (g) Specify alignment and adjustment criteria of: Crankshafts, chain drives, gear drives, integral thrust bearings, crossheads (h) Compile specified working clearances and limits of all bearings, sliding surfaces, and interference fits of a typical diesel engine, using engine builders' manuals.
3.2 Engine Lubrication (a) Identify diesel engine lubricant types, properties, and applications. Outline principles of diesel engine lubrication. Contamination and deterioration of diesel engine lubricants - Discuss the sources/ causes types, and effects of contamination. (b) Describe typical testing and treatment methods, and Interpret typical results of testing, giving appropriate actions which should be undertaken. (c) Describe, using diagrams, the distribution of lubricating oil to diesel engines, in particular the: Guides and crosshead bearings of slow speed diesel engines, Top end bearings of medium speed engines, Bottom end bearing, Main bearings, Camshaft drives, showing direction of flow, typical clearances, and stating normal operating parameters.
3.3 Fuel Injection (a) Explain why atomization and penetration of fuel and the turbulence of air are essential to optimum combustion in a diesel engine. (b) State typical injection pressures and viscosities for different grades of fuel. (c) Describe how and why fuel pumps, camshafts, and injectors are altered for varying fuel types. (d) Describe, with the aid of simple sketches, the difference between constant and variable injection timing of fuel, showing materials, principal parts, methods of operation and adjustments of common types of fuel pump. (e) Compare injection requirements for slow speed, medium speed, and high speed diesel engines, including pilot injection and pre-combustion chambers. (f) Identify common service faults, symptoms, and causes of combustion problems, specifying appropriate adjustments, including methods of fuel pump timing. (g) Summarize Occupational Health & Safety aspects of handling and testing fuel injection systems. (h) Explain, using relevant diagrams and stating normal operating parameters: Fuel valve cooling arrangement and Uni-fuel and dual-fuel systems (for high/medium viscosity fuel types) (i) Discuss the atmospheric pollution aspects of diesel engine combustion, and give methods which reduce this pollution (especially SOx and NOx reduction).
3.4 Scavenging and Supercharging Evaluate the need for scavenging diesel engines, Compare methods of scavenging diesel engines, Specify methods of providing pressurized air for combustion in diesel engines, Assess pressure charging methods for diesel engines, Assess pressure charging methods for diesel engines, Examine the working principles of turbochargers, Assess lubrication and cooling requirements of turbochargers, Analyze typical faults and identify appropriate actions to be undertaken with defective or damaged turbochargers.
3.5 Starting and Reversing (a) Describe starting procedures of diesel engines for power generation, propulsion, and emergency use. (b) Explain starting and maneuvering requirements/sequences for direct coupled reversible and geared propulsion diesel engines, for fixed and controllable pitch propeller applications (c) Describe, with labeled diagrams to indicate major components, typical maneuvering and reversing systems for propulsion diesel engines (d) Compare different methods of reversing direct coupled propulsion diesel engines (e) Identify common faults and identify appropriate actions to be undertaken with typical diesel engine starting and maneuvering systems (f) Compare the different methods of utilizing diesel engines for ship propulsion, including - Direct coupled, reversible slow and medium speed engines and Clutched and geared reversible and unidirectional medium speed engines with a fixed pitch propeller, Clutched and geared reversible and unidirectional medium speed engines with a controllable pitch propeller, and Diesel electric drive.
3.6 Cooling systems (a) Analyze the problems that may arise in cooling water spaces of diesel engines. (b) Evaluate common methods of diesel engine cooling water treatment. (c) State the importance of maintaining diesel engine thermal efficiency and evaluate thermal loads on engine components. (d) Justify cooling media selection and state the advantages and disadvantages of various diesel cooling methods. (e) Evaluate the tests used in the control of diesel engine cooling water treatment. (f) Enumerate the normal operating limits for diesel engine cooling water treatment. (g) Interpret the implications of out of limit readings from water treatment tests and state the corrective procedures which should be undertaken. (h) Itemize the sources and types of contamination of diesel engine cooling water and explain the effects of these contaminations on the reserves of treatment chemicals. (i) Compare the procedures which may be used to counter contamination of diesel engine cooling water. (j) Explain, using relevant diagrams and stating normal operating parameters, typical methods of cooling: (k) Medium and slow speed diesel engine pistons, Exhaust valves, Cylinders, Turbochargers, Cylinder heads.
3.7 Diesel Engine Control and Safety
3.8 Diesel Engine Emergency operation
3.9 Multi-engine Propulsion Arrangement
1. Design features and operative mechanism of a Marine Steam Turbines and associated auxiliaries (a) Describes with the aid of sketches/computer aided drawing, material selection and design features of steam turbines - Convergent and convergent/divergent nozzles and Nozzle boxes, Impulse and reaction turbines, Pressure and velocity compounding, Pressure/velocity diagrams, Optimum blade speeds, Hybrid blades, Materials of blades and other components, Turbine construction, Erosion shields, Bearings, thrust bearings, Turbine glands and gland steam systems, Astern turbines, Turbine casings, Diaphragms, Reheat turbines, Support and expansion of turbines. (b) Describes with the aid of sketches the operative mechanism of steam turbines - Alarms and trips, Warming through, Normal and emergency operation, Shut down procedures, Turbine performance, Sequential nozzle operation, Resonance, Critical speed, Vibration, Emergency control systems, Rotor straightening. (c) Describes with the aid of sketches/computer aided drawing, material selection and design features of steam turbine gear box - Single and double reduction, Double helical involute gear teeth, Single and double locked gear trains, Epicyclic gearing, Flexible couplings, Nodal drive, Method of manufacturing of spur gears.
2.Design features and operative mechanism of Marine Steam Boiler and associated auxiliaries (a) Describes with the aid of sketches/computer aided drawing, material selection and design features of marine steam boilers - Types of main steam boilers, Methods of construction, Boiler fittings and drum internals, Water circulation, Gas circulation, Operating parameters, Support and expansion, Super heaters and their temperature control, Soot blowers, Economizers, Air heaters, Steam to steam generation, Chemistry of combustion, Burners and burner registers, Local and remote water level indicators, Safety valves. (b) Describes with the aid of sketches/computer aided drawing, material selection and design features of marine steam boiler feed water (c) systems - Main feed systems, Condenser types, level control, construction, materials, support, expansion, operating parameters, loss of vacuum and leak testing, Air ejectors, Vacuum pumps, Extraction pumps, Gland condensers, Low pressure heaters, Drain coolers, High-pressure heaters, Turbo feed pumps, hydraulic balance, De-aerators.
3.Propulsive characteristics of Steam Turbine - Propeller curve, Propeller design point, Fouled hull, sea margin and heavy propeller, Continuous service rating, Limits for continuous operation, Limits for overload operation, Evaluate plant performance and analysis.
4.The efficient operation, surveillance, performance assessment and maintaining safety of propulsion plant and auxiliary machinery (a) Performance data of individual turbines and cycle components during sea trial (b) Periodic acquisition of above mentioned data and comparison for location of deterioration, (c) Enthalpy drop test in superheated section of steam turbine (d) Quantification of stage efficiency losses – Leakage, Friction, Aerodynamic and Changes in flow passage areas.
5. Theoretical knowledge: (a) Ancillary feed water/ steam plant and combustion equipment. (b) Safe and efficient operation of steam plant. The determination of shaft power and the recognition of irregularity in the performance of machinery and plant. Analysis and interpretation of information gained from monitoring equipment. (c) Boiler and feed water testing and interpretation of results. Chemical treatment of feed water and boiler water. Effect of high chloride content, high phosphate reserve and high hydrazine reserve. (d) Methods of superheated temperature control, importance of steam purity and steam separation. (e) Boiler, steam pipe line, condenser and turbine support arrangement and expansion. (f) Procedure for warming up and cooling down of main turbines. Emergency lighting up procedure for main boilers. (g) Repair and maintenance procedure for refractory, insulation, water wall tubes (membrane type) water tubes, safety valve, retractable soot blowers, burners, steam traps and water level indicators. (h) Understanding of automatic combustion control system, burner management system, safety cut-outs and alarm system. Gas burning and monitoring system. (i) Types of auxiliary boilers, Auxiliary steam system, Safety valves, Boiler water level indicators, Use of Sea water in Boilers, Use of Fresh Water in Boilers, Boiler Water Testing, Boiler Water Treatment, Auxiliary Steam turbines, Boiler defects, Boiler survey and repairs, Evaporators, Thermal fluid heating system.
Marine Engineering Maintenance .1 approved workshop skills training .2 approved practical experience and tests .3 approved in-service experience .4 approved training ship experience Selection of tools and spare gear is appropriate Dismantling, inspecting, repairing and reassembling equipment is in accordance with manuals and good practice Re-commissioning and performance testing is in accordance with manuals and good practice Selection of materials is appropriate Fastening, Preparation for work on machinery, heat exchangers etc., General maintenance procedure of Centrifugal Pumps fitted with a means of air extraction, reciprocating pumps. Screw and Gear Pumps, pipes, valves, air compressors, heat exchanger. Maintenance and repair of diesel engine, auxiliary steam engine, petrol engine, turbocharger, diesel engine components, wear and tear, alignment of machinery components, correction of defects, breakdown repairs, steering gear. Maintenance and repair of oil fuel burners, propulsion shafting, refrigeration, deck machinery. Maintenance and repair of Auxiliary Boilers; Maintenance and repairs of deck machinery and hydraulic equipments; Hull inspection, maintenance and repairs of vessel in dry dock. Maintenance and repairs of main boilers, turbines and steam plants (for steam candidates). Safety and emergency procedures, safe isolation of all main and auxiliary machineries required before personnel are permitted to work on such plant and equipment. Safe trials and commissioning after repairs and trails.
Basic Electricity & Storage Batteries: The electrical circuit D.C. wire distribution system. Types of insulation. Wheatstone network bridge, slide wire bridge; applications to steering gears, resistance pyrometers, strain gauges etc. Electrolytic action and secondary cells. Theory of electrolytic dissociation applied to common solutions. Uses of electrolysis. Secondary cells (acid or alkaline), construction and principles, maintenance, charging. Watt-hour and ampere-hour efficiencies.
Applied Electricity: Typical B/H and μ/B circuit. Alternating current theory. Simple continuous periodic waves: frequency, amplitude instantaneous, maximum r.m.s. skills training . Approved practical experience and tests . Approved in-service experience . Approved training ship experience appropriate and interpretation of results is accurate Dismantling, inspecting, repairing and reassembling equipment are in accordance with manuals and good practice Reassembling and performance testing is in accordance with manuals and good practice and average values, form factor. Phasor representation of a.c. quantities. Phase difference. Simple treatment of power factor. Power in single phase a.c. circuit.
Electrical machines and troubleshooting: Distribution systems. Systems. Systems of a.c. and d.c. shipboard installation. Protective devices such as fuses, circuit breakers, earth lamps. Cable material and installation. Connection of shore supply d.c. machines. The principles, constructional details and protection of d.c. series, shunt and compound wound motors and generators. Self excitation, e.m.f and load voltage equations. Load characteristics. Methods of voltage control, paralleling procedures and load sharing for generators. Need for and types of starter, speed and torque equations, speed control of d.c. motors. a.c. machines, Simple explanation of the principles, constructional details and protection of alternators, squirrel-cage induction motors and single-phase transformers. Parallel running and synchronising theory. Synchronous motors, motor starters, Soft Starter, motor speed control, HV switch gear, switch gear equipments, MSB, DBS, HV & LV distribution, Electric Propulsion System, Layout of ships electrical system, fault level calculations, fault protection, electrical maintenance, electrical survey requirements, ships lighting.
Electronics: Junction diodes, junction transistors and their operating characteristics. Simple transistor circuits. Transistor as an Amplifier, Switch, Oscillator. Transistor biasing and its types e.g. Fixed bias and potential divider bias. IC 555 based Timers, Alarms / Siren / Buzzers Photoelectric effect. Photo Electric Devices e.g. LED, LCD, 7 Segment Display, Power semiconductor devices e.g. SCR, PMOSFET, IGBT and Rectifier, Inverter its applications onboard ship e.g. Ship Propulsion and ballast, cargo pump control using variable frequency drives. Digital Electronics, communication systems: Modulation & Demodulation, AM/FM transmitter and receivers, Radar. Operational Amplifier and its application in measurement and control of process parameters onboard ship.
Instrumentation: Instruments. Qualitative treatment of the principles and functions of a.c. and d.c. indicating instruments and relays. Uses of shunts and series resistances to increase the range. Rectifiers and transducers. Rectifier analysis Filters, Regulated Power Supply using Zener diode, Transistors and IC with its applications. Types of transducers suitable for measurement and control of Temperature, Pressure, Flow, Level, Speed, Torque, Force, Acceleration, Vibration, Humidity and Moisture with calibration of all.
Control Systems: Simple theory of all control systems, location of common faults and action to prevent damage. PID control, Basics and Tuning. V-I, I-V, P-I & I-P control. Programmable Logic Control: basics, operation, safety, maintenance and fault finding. Maintenance and repair of electrical and electronic equipment Maintenance of generators, motors and circuit breakers Safe isolation of all electrical plants and equipments required before personnel are permitted to work on such plant and equipment.
Ship construction: Common terms used in the measurement of steel ships. E.g. length between perpendiculars, breadth overall, moulded depth, draught and freeboard. Definitions of shipbuilding terms in general use. Descriptions and sketches of structural members in ordinary types of steel ships. Load Lines, Deck line, Free board, Plimsol line, Watertight doors. Hatches, Rudders, Bow-thrusters. Propellers, Watertight bulkheads. Double bottoms. Anchors and cables. Descriptive treatment of the effect of free surface of liquids on stability. Arrangements for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. Ventilation arrangements (natural and mechanical) for pump rooms in tankers and for holds and oil fuel tanks. Fore and aft peak tanks, double bottom and deep tank filling and pumping arrangements. Compartmental drainage. Leveling arrangements for damaged side compartments. Ship dimensions and form: General arrangement of General cargo, tankers, bulk carriers, combination carriers, containers, ro-ro and passenger ships, definitions of camber, rise of floor, flare, sheer, rake etc., Ship stresses: Hogging, sagging, racking, panting, pounding, slamming etc, Hull structure: Proper names for the various parts, standard steel sections etc., Bow and stern: Stern frame, structural arrangement forward and aft to withstand panting and pounding etc., Fittings: Water tightness to the hatches, opening in oil tankers, chain lockers and attachment of cables, bilge piping system, ballast system, sounding and air pipes etc., Rudders and propellers: Construction of rudders and propeller, controllable pitch propeller, stern tube arrangement etc., Process of welding.
Naval Architecture: General. Displacement, Wetted surface, block midsection, prismatic and water-plane area coefficient. Bonjean Curves, Body Plan, Tonne per centimeter immersion. Application of Simpson's 1st and 2nd Rules to areas, moments of areas, volumes and moments of volumes, 2nd Moment of area, Application of 3, -8, 1 rule, Displacement, Laws of Floatation, TPC, Coefficient of Form, Calculation of area, volume & moments. Transverse Stability of ships, Working knowledge and application of stability, trim and stress tables, diagrams and stress calculating equipment, fundamentals of water tight integrity, actions to be taken in the event of partial loss of intact stability. Draught and buoyancy. Alteration of mean draught due to change in density of water, Buoyancy and reserve buoyancy. Effect of bilging amid ship compartments. Transverse stability Centre of gravity. Centre of buoyancy. Metacentre. Shift of centre of gravity due to addition or removal of mass, transverse movement of mass. Stability at small angles of heel, KB, BM and Hydrostatic Curves, Moments of statical stability. The inclining experiment. Resistance and propulsion. Comparison of skin frictional resistance of hull with model at different speeds. R = f.s.vn and residual resistance. Admiralty and Fuel coefficients. Relation between speed of vessel and fuel consumption with constant displacement and assuming that resistance varies as (speed) n.
Precaution to be taken to prevent pollution of the Marine environment: While bunkering, loading/ discharging oil cargo, tank cleaning, pumping out bilges, and knowledge of construction and operation of Oil pollution prevention equipment in engine room and on tankers.
Legislation awareness and compliance : MARPOL 73/78 as amended, GOI rules wrt pollution prevention and other national legislations like OPA – 90 etc and other applicable international conventions on pollution. Knowledge of Codes of Safe Working Practices as published; knowledge of type of information issued by D.G. Shipping with regard to safety at sea; Safe Working Practices; Oil record book and SOPEP manual. Ballast Water Management.
Precautions against fire and explosions, fire prevention, detection and extinction in all parts of a ship Personal survival techniques and life saving appliances on ship, Medical Care: Theory of fire; Fire control aboard ships; Ship fire fighting organisations; Training of seafarers in fire fighting; Procedures for fire fighting; Inspection and servicing of fire appliances and equipment; Fire fighting process hazards; First aid; Fire investigations and reporting; Case studies; Introduction and safety; Emergency situations; Principles of survival; Use of survival equipment; Survival craft and rescue boat; Methods of helicopter rescue; Launching arrangements; Lifeboat engine and accessories; Evacuation; Signalling equipment and pyrotechnics; First aid; Radio equipment; Launching and handling survival craft in rough weather; Understands practical applications of medical guides; Understands process of radio medical advice; Demonstrates knowledge of actions to be taken in case of accidents or illnesses that are likely to occur on board ships
Legislation with regard ship safety: SOLAS, Load lines Connection, STCW.
Security Aspects: ISPS codes and its requirements, ship security plan, levels of security.
Legislations: Knowledge of National & International legislation, IMO & Conventions, Indian Merchant Shipping Act & Rules, Classification society, Charterers, Personal relationship on board ship. Statutory Survey and Certification, Port State Control, Flag State Inspection, ISM Code.
Leadership and team working skills: Engine room resource management, effective corrections, allocation of resources. Planning and coordination, work load management, time and resource constraints.